Buckeye's platform technology, MACROESISTM (patent pending) shows great clinical promise for whitenting and flouride applications and may open the door to a broad range of active compounds.  MACROESISTM  is an innovative electrochemical drug delivery system based on powerful AC electrokinetics, not iontophoresis, which has been applied to dermatological, Dental and dental conditions to transport different drugs of varying molecular weight and polarity to site-specific targets through various biologic membranes.  The system is based on a simple, safe device with custom-designed disposable dental electrodes (device pictured at right) which applies a series of optimally-tuned low-voltage AC signals to induce temporary polarization and enhance drug mobility. This innovative technology is being developed by Buckeye Dental as an outgrowth of research on transdermal drug delivery patches.  

MACROESISTM drug delivery involves the application of an electromotive force to temporarily align (polarize) the drugs for transport and then transport ions and neutral molecules into the tooth. Ionized drugs (charged molecules) are transported actively by the force of the applied electrical field (electrorepulsion). Neutral, water soluble drug molecules are transported by electroosmosis, the bulk fluid flow associated with cation (positively charged molecules) transport by an electric field.  The proprietary designed series of electrodes is used in contact with the patientís tooth to form a drug transport pathway. 

The technology advances the science of drug delivery by: extending targeted electrochemical drug transport to a wider range of drugs across a wider range of biological membranes; eliminating the need for reformulation; improving efficacy of delivery; and negating many of the safety risks associated with previous generations. The use of low-voltage AC signals in the MACROESISTM electrochemical delivery system negates most of these safety risks, and additional safeguards are built into the system.

MACROESISTM   Iontophoresis

AC only



Optimally tuned for each application Signaling

Identical for each application

Pharmaceutical Signal applied to Tissue - skin, nail and eye

Series of optimally tuned signals

Signal pattern

Continuous signaling

Up to very large molecules Polypeptides Drug sizes Small molecule drugs only
High - from 50% to 80%

Transport efficiency

Low - from 10% to 20%
Patent pending Patent position Public domain
Proprietary design Electrode Public domain design
Existing registered drugs Drug development Specially reformulated drugs
FDA 505(b)(2) Regulatory INO - FDA Phases I-III
2 years

Development time

5-6 years
None known Side effects

Possible skin burning, cracking, blisters


© Buckeye Dental                                                                                                                  Last Rev: 5/05/11 by Millas Designs
23715 Mercantile Rd, Beachwood OH 44122